Alberta, Canada, temperatures dropped to -16C on Monday, breaking the day's
previous record, from 1928, by about three degrees
freezing foothills of Montana, a distinctly bitter blast of revolution hangs
in the air. And while the residents of the icy city of Missoula can stave
off the -10C chill with thermals and fires, there may be no easy remedy
for the wintry snap's repercussions. The temperature has shattered a 36-year
record. Further into the heartlands of America, the city of Billings registered
-12C on Sunday, breaking the 1959 barrier of -5C.
to home, Austria is today seeing its earliest snowfall in history with 30
to 40 centimetres already predicted in the mountains. Such dramatic falls
in temperatures provide superficial evidence for those who doubt that the
world is threatened by climate change. But most pertinent of all, of course,
are the growing volume of statistics. According to the National Climatic
Data Centre, Earth's hottest recorded year was 1998. If you put the same
question to NASA, scientists will say it was 1934, followed by 1998. The
next three runner-ups are 1921, 2006 and 1931. Which all blows a rather
large hole in the argument that the earth is hurtling towards an inescapable
heat death prompted by man's abuse of the environment.
some experts believe we should forget global warming and turn our attention
to an entirely differently phenomenon - global cooling. The evidence for
both remains inconclusive, which is unlikely to help the legions of world
leaders meeting in Copenhagen in December to negotiate a new climate change
There is no doubt the amount of man-made carbon dioxide, the gas believed
to be responsible for heating up the planet, has increased phenomenally
over the last 100 years. For the final few decades of the 20th century and
as the atmosphere's composition changed, scientists recorded the planet
was warming rapidly and made a positive correlation between the two. But
then something went wrong. Rather then continuing to soar, the Earth's temperature
appeared to stabilise, smashing all conventional predictions.
development seemed to support the view of climate change cynics who claimed
global warming was simply a natural cycle and not caused by man. Some doubters
believe that the increase was actually down to the amount of energy from
the Sun, which provides 98 per cent of the Earth's warmth. Previously, the
fluctuating amount of radiation given out by the sun was thought to play
a large role in the climate. But Dr Piers Forster from Leeds University,
who was part of the team to win the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize for his work
on climate change, studied solar output - the heat leaving the sun's surface
- and cosmic ray intensity over the last 40 years, and compared those figures
with global average surface temperature.
told the BBC: 'Warming in the last 20 to 40 years can't have been caused
by solar activity.' Scientists have intensified the search for alternative
explanations. Professor Don Easterbrook from Western Washington University
believes the key to the connumdrum may be the temperature of the world's
seas. Figures show the Pacific Ocean has been cooling over the last few
years, and Easterbrook's research shows a correlation between this and global
temperatures. He says the oceans have a cycle in which they warm and cool
cyclically, known as Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO). And after a 30-year
heating cycle in the 1980s and 1990s, pushing temperatures above average,
we are now moving into a cooler period.
Easterbrook said: 'In the last few years [the Pacific Ocean] has been losing
its warmth and has recently started to cool down.
'The PDO cool mode has replaced the warm mode in the Pacific Ocean, virtually
assuring us of about 30 years of global cooling.' His figures show that
the global cooling from 1945 to 1977 coincided with one of these cold Pacific
cycles. Mojib Latif, a member of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change), stressed the impact of the ocean currents in the North Atlantic
- a phenomenon called the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Atlantic
Meridional Oscillation. He believes we may be in a period of cooling - but
that it will be temporary before global warming reasserts itself. He said
the NAO may have been responsible for some of the rapid rise in temperatures
of the last three decades. 'But how much? The jury is still out,' he said.
is the sun really going down on global warming?
The Met Office is not convinced.
incorporate solar and oceanic cycles into their models, and they say that
- even if there are periods of slower warming, or temporary cooling, the
long-term trend in global temperatures is still on the up.